Lack of hunger strike, clear mind and rapid weight loss are all advantages of a ketogenic diet. Learn the type of keto diet and choose the one that works for you!
The ketogenic diet is no longer a newcomer to the world of nutrition and weight loss, but continues to be the method where there is the most controversy. And all because its adherents are confident: on the feet of fried chicken and juicy pieces of meat, you can not only lose weight, but also never be able to gain weight. Doctors warn: keto diets are difficult, dangerous, not fully understood, and even fraught with many side effects.
Fat diets come from the medical world, where they have long been used to relieve seizures in children. This is one type of low carb diet program. However, the main difference between the ketogenic system and the common one is that fat is a major nutrient in its diet.
How it works
In proper nutrition, the most preferred nutrient ratio (BJU) is 1: 1: 4, i. e. carbohydrates are the basis of diet. They are a major source of energy (calories) and are needed for the nervous system as a source of glucose. However, many studies confirm that this is not entirely true. Swedish scientists have shown that as a result of the increase in fats and proteins, as well as the rejection of saccharides after the depletion of its own glycogen stores, the body shifts to another "mode". Normal metabolism is rebuilt and glucose is no longer a major source of energy. The liver produces a special form of acetone called ketones (ketone bodies), which move through the bloodstream and affect the oxidation of fatty acids. As a result, our body experiences ketosis and releases energy not from the carbohydrate chain, but from fat processing products, first removing subcutaneous fat, and then using fat from food. Experiments have confirmed that ketones are more of a physiological fuel for the brain, while sugar, on the other hand, is a cheap and fast energy, which in the future will cause deteriorating brain disease.
After remarkable research results, professional athletes and bodybuilders are interested in this method. The ketogenic diet began to gain popularity and changed from diet to lifestyle promising rapid weight loss, strengthening and increasing muscle mass, the absence of constant hunger and, as a consequence, different lives.
However, despite its effectiveness, doctors warn: ketogenic diets are associated with the calculation of dietary norms, so they are prescribed and monitored by a nutritionist. It is important to start, maintain, and control ketosis properly. Creating your own menu program means endangering your health!
Professional athletes distinguish between three main types of ketogenic diets:
Standard (SKD - standard ketogenic diet)
This is a basic, linear program with moderate to high protein intake, high fat intake and low carbohydrate intake in the diet. It is characterized by a continuous supply of ketogenic nutrients without a period of glucose filling. SKD is ideal for people with low activity (inactive lifestyle, irregular exercise).
How to calculate nutrient balance? Take, for example, a standard ketogenic diet for 75kg of people with exercise intensity 2-3 times a week.
- First, let's calculate daily calorie intake (KRday). For example, this would be about 2000 kcal / day.
- The amount of protein required (Bsut) is 2 grams per 1 kg of body weight, for example Bsut = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
- Total daily carbohydrate (Usut) is 0. 2-0. 4 grams. per 1 kg of weight, which is 15-30 grams / day (we will take into account 30 grams for calculation).
- Let's calculate how many calories in a daily diet come from protein and glycides. Each of these nutrients is known to contain 4 calories per gram. Therefore, in our calculation, this value is (150 + 30) * 4 = 720 kcal.
- As you can see, for example, one should get 1280 kcal (2000-720) from fat. And because 1 gram of fat contains 9 kcal, then the total daily fat (F / day) = 1280/9 = 142 grams.
As a result of the calculation, we determined that for this situation, the diet should consist of 150 grams of protein, 30 grams of carbohydrates and 142 grams of fat, which are evenly distributed between meals.
Cyclic (CKD- cyclic ketogenic diet)
An option for experienced bodybuilders who enjoy their body and understand the rules of proper nutrition, calories and diet. CKD is suitable for athletes who train daily and report decreased effectiveness of training, with a background of basic and targeted systems. The goal of this method is to determine the correct period between days of carbs (refeeds) and calculate the amount of glucose that will allow you to work on your body at maximum intensity.
Bodybuilders recommend gradually introducing refeeds, starting with one per week, and monitoring your well-being by adjusting the interval between loads based on individual needs. Write down how many carbs you eat each day and how you feel as a whole.
The main rule of the load day: a decrease in the W / day indicator while the B / day should remain unchanged (or increased). U / day depends on individual sensitivity to insulin and 2-3 g per 1 kg with low, 4-5 g per 1 kg with normal and 6-7 g per 1 kg with high sensitivity.
Let's calculate the caloric content of CDC with normal insulin sensitivity for our example.
- B / day = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
- Y / day = 450 to 525 grams / day.
- The daily caloric content of protein and sugar on the day of carbohydrate loading is (150 + 450) * 4 = 2400 kcal.
- As in the previous calculation, we calculate the remaining calories, divide the resulting amount by 9 and get how many grams of fat should be included in the diet on carbohydrate day.
Therefore, the calculation shows that for 6 days the CKD menu will be made as in CKD, and the daily caloric content (carbohydrates) will be 2500 kcal (150 g protein, 300 g carbohydrates and 78 g fat)
TKD target ketogenic diet
Suitable for long-term athletes whose performance drops dramatically after a long period of time without glycides and who can benefit from low carb intake. It is characterized by a short-term "injection" of the current saccharide called "training window" (i. e. before and after training), which will increase endurance, but will not suppress the ketosis process. The goal of a targeted ketogenic diet is to provide improved performance and short-term resilience. If there is no training, instructions for SKD are taken.
Let's calculate Y / days before and after training for our example:
- B / day = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
- Increased Y / day depends on insulin resistance and +0. 5 g per 1 kg with low sensitivity, +0. 75 g per 1 kg normally and +1 g per 1 kg body weight with high sensitivity. It is best to divide these extra carbohydrates into two equal portions and eat before and after exercise.
- As in the previous calculation, we reduce the daily protein and carbohydrate calories from the total calories of the diet. The delta produced is calories caused by fat.
Attention!This calculation is not a rule, but an example. The calculation of indicators for the basic menu should be based on individual characteristics, and the adaptation of targeted ketogenic diet fast foods and cycles is done exclusively through trial and error based on well-being, performance indicators, endurance, intensity and duration of training. If you are unsure of your abilities and experience, we recommend that you contact a nutritionist.
To achieve the desired weight loss results, follow these guidelines:
- Start by fasting for a day. Only water is allowed.
- Diet should contain: "correct" fats - 60%, protein - 30%, carbohydrates at least 10% of daily calorie intake.
- Intake of mandatory vitamins and minerals (calcium, vitamin D, folic acid).
- Drink as much as you can.
- To take food from the allowed list.
Allowed and Prohibited Products
The onset and maintenance of ketosis is facilitated by:
- fermented dairy products with high fat content (including cottage cheese);
- lard, fatty meat, poultry with skin;
- sausages (jamon, balyk, boiled pork);
- fish (preferably fatty) and seafood;
- hard cheese (try to choose cheese with a minimum amount of carbohydrates);
- oils (butter, unrefined vegetable oil, coconut);
- fiber-like vegetables;
- peanuts, peanut pasta;
- pumpkin seeds;
- leafy salad.
- dark and bitter chocolate with maximum cocoa content and minimum sugar;
- raw roots, vegetables, fruits that have not undergone heat treatment;
- tea, coffee.
- carbonated drinks;
- sugar, honey;
- toast, bread;
- dried fruit;
- skim milk, kefir, yogurt;
- margarine, spread;
- starchy vegetables.
When creating a week-long menu for a ketogenic diet, nutritionists recommend not focusing on the weight of the food, but making the menu based on its contents and calculating the BJU ratio.
About the ketogenic menu for a week, taking into account the recommendations.
- Breakfast: scrambled eggs from 2 eggs; hard cheese; bacon; a cup of coffee.
- Lunch: vegetable salad ("Iceberg" leafy + cucumber + celery) seasoned with mayonnaise; fried chicken with skin; hard cheese.
- Dinner: steak; boiled cauliflower with mushrooms; coffee with cream.
- Breakfast: cutlet; hard cheese; americano cup with milk.
- Lunch: salmon steak with creamy sauce; steamed broccoli; lettuce salad with cheese and eggs, topped with mayonnaise.
- Dinner: pork; boiled cabbage; vegetable salad; tea.
- Breakfast: 6-egg omelet with grated cheese (can be replaced with protein shake); soy milk - 0, 5 l.
- Lunch: smoked brisket; fried zucchini with cheese.
- Dinner: red fish with cream sauce; vegetable salad with mayonnaise; yogurt.
- Breakfast: soft boiled eggs - 4-5 pieces; any sauce - 2-3 tbsp. spoon; vegetable salad with cheese.
- Lunch: boiled mushrooms with sour cream; spinach salad; Fried fish.
- Dinner: meat steak; toast with honey; milk.
- Breakfast: scrambled eggs (3-4 eggs); protein shake; hard cheese.
- Lunch: scrambled eggs; fried chicken breast; hard cheese.
- Dinner: salmon; un roasted almonds; salad.
- Breakfast: salmon; grapefruit; salad.
- Lunch: fish; vegetable stew; peanut mixture.
- Dinner: vegetable salad; some sausages; cheese.
- Breakfast: eggs in a bag; cheese; vegetable salad.
- Lunch: turkey; tomato salad with mayonnaise; cheese.
- Dinner: cottage cheese; grapefruit.
Make sure you follow your drinking rules. Drink at least 1. 5 liters of water throughout the day.
Contraindications and side effects
For a few days after starting a ketogenic diet, you may feel weak, lethargic and depressed. Such a diet is not natural and therefore very dangerous for the growing organism. For adolescents, these foods are categorized as contraindicated. With a long-term or improper ketogenic diet, the following side effects may occur:
- increased levels of bad cholesterol in the blood;
- violation of peristalsis, functional state of the gastrointestinal tract (gastroesophageal reflux);
- dehydration (because carbohydrates remove excess water);
- stunted growth (in adolescents) due to lack of protein;
- vitamin deficiency;
- mineral deficiency and, consequently, bone remineralization, osteoporosis;
- inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis);
- hormonal imbalances and menstrual cycle failure;
That is why, to prevent the development of pathological diseases and the improvement of existing diseases, the diet is controlled by specialists. During weight loss, monthly monitoring of the condition is organized, delivery of basic tests (blood, urine). Correction of the ketogenic diet or its cancellation is done by the doctor based on the results of the examination.